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Market Research


The demand for micro-mobility devices such as e-scooters and e-bikes is on the rise. This can be explained by multiple factors including an increased need for fuel-efficient vehicles due to concerns over carbon and greenhouse gas emissions, increasing adoption of electric scooter sharing services and the “pandemic effect” as more people explore options of individual, socially-distanced travel with micro-mobility devices over public transportation. The global e-scooter market is expected to grow from $20 to $42 billion from 2020 to 2030 according to Grand View Research. To capture additional market share of this growing market, e-scooter OEMs must develop smaller, more efficient and higher-performance designs.

Design Challenges:

  • Competitive cost
  • Limited battery size
  • Low operating acoustic noise
  • Regenerative braking capability
E-Scooter Product Example

E-Scooter Reference Design Overview Video

This video demonstrates our high-performance Brushless DC (BLDC)  electric scooter motor driver reference design. Speed up your time to market and reduce your design risk by starting with our solution.

E-Scooter Reference Design Interactive Block Diagram



Design Files and Documents


The E-scooter BLDC motor driver reference design includes a high-performance BLDC/PMSM motor driver board that demonstrates the capabilities of the dsPIC33CK Digital Signal Controller (DSC) and the MIC4104 MOSFET gate driver for motor control applications like e-scooters and e-bikes. We developed the board to meet the stringent demands of modern motor control applications such as high efficiency, compact dimensions, low cost and high performance.

Front View of Board

Back View of Board

Key Features


  • dsPIC33CK64MP105 DSC motor controller
  • Demonstration software that uses Hall sensors for high-torque start-up and uses Field-Oriented Control (FOC) for high efficiency
  • Debugger/programmer interface for connecting an MPLAB® PICkit 4 debugger/programmer, MPLAB ICD 4 debugger/programmer or other   programming tools in the MPLAB development ecosystem
  • Feedback circuits support both Hall sensors and sensorless motor control algorithms (BEMF and FOC)
  • Three-phase inverter stage
  • Three MIC4104 half-bridge MOSFET gate drivers
  • Six n-channel MOSFETs with low RDS(on) (typical 1.9 mΩ)
  • Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) switching frequency range from 8–50 kHz (typical 20 kHz—above the audible range)
  • Three low-side shunt resistors on each inverter phase for current measurement (2 mΩ)
  • 350W maximum output power
  • 20A RMS (continuous) and up to 27A RMS (momentary) motor phase current
  • FASTON connectors to motor
  • 18–42V VBUS input voltage range (up to 10s battery pack)
  • XT30-type connector for battery pack
  •  System bias generation using the MCP16331 (12V), MCP1754S (5V) and MCP1754S (3.3V)
  • Temperature measurement support (NTC thermistor)
  • Auxiliary connector for other functions such as throttle input, voltage monitoring, I2C, UART, Bluetooth® and more

Other Reference Designs


Air Conditioner Reference Design

Our Air Conditioner Reference Design, based on the dual-core dsPIC33CH family of Digital Signal Controllers (DSCs), demonstrates efficient control of the condenser fan, compressor, PFC and the overall application logic implementation. The high-performance dsPIC33C DSCs offer the right set of peripherals for dual-motor control and reduce the need for three controllers down to one for cost and space savings in your design.

Refrigerator Compressor Reference Design

This dsPIC33 motor control DSC-based refrigerator compressor reference design will help you rapidly prototype and develop a cost-effective design. The design works with a wide variety of refrigerator compressor PMSM motors and implements sensorless control and a single-shunt current sensing technique to save BOM cost. It also addresses the challenges of maintaining reliable startup of the compressor when faced with high pressure and low standby power consumption

Low-Power High-Voltage Motor Control Reference Design

This high-voltage reference design board is targeted to control AC Induction Motors (ACIMs), Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) and Brushless DC (BLDC) motors in sensored or sensorless operations. The board is designed to demonstrate the capabilities and efficiency of high-voltage motor control operations at a low power of up to 150W.

Hardware Tools


dSPIC33CK Low Voltage Motor Control (LVMC) Development Board

Part Number: DM330031

dsPICDEM™ MCLV-2 Development Board

Part Number: DM330021-2

24V 3-Phase Brushless DC Motor

Part Number: AC300020

Software Tools


motorBench® Development Suite

The motorBench Development Suite is a Graphical User Interface (GUI)-based software development tool for Field Oriented Control (FOC), performing accurate measurement of critical motor parameters, automatic tuning of feedback control gains and generating source code for an MPLAB® X IDE project utilizing the Motor Control Application Framework (MCAF). 

Motor Control Modeling and Simulation

We offer a rapid prototyping solution that allows compiling and flashing a Simulink® model of a motor control system into a dsPIC® DSC with a single push of a button. The Simulink blocksets and models are supported by our devices and development boards for a complete hardware and software motor control solution to make prototyping your next motor control design easier.

Motor Control Library

The Motor Control Library contains function blocks that are optimized for the dsPIC33 families of Digital Signal Controllers (DSCs). All functions in this Motor Control library have input(s) and output(s), but do not access any of the DSC peripherals, making the library modular to use across the dsPIC33 families.

MPLAB® Mindi™ Analog Simulator

MPLAB Mindi Analog Simulator uses a SIMetrix/SIMPLIS environment to model circuit behavior. reducing design time with software debugging for initial design verification

dsPIC33 DSCs for E-Scooter Applications


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Application Notes


Title Download
AN4064 - Sensored (Hall Effect Sensor-Based) Field Oriented Control of Three-Phase BLDC Motor Using dsPIC33CK Download
AN1299 - Single-Shunt Three-Phase Current Reconstruction Algorithm for Sensorless FOC of a PMSM Download
AN1292 - Dual-Shunt FOC with PLL Download
AN1208 - Dual-Shunt FOC With PLL and PFC Download
AN1078 - Dual-Shunt FOC With SMO Download
AN1160 - Sensorless BLDC Control with Back-EMF Filtering Using a Majority Function Download
AN957 - Sensored BLDC Motor Control Using dsPIC Digital Signal Controllers (DSCs) Download
AN1017 - Sinusoidal Control of PMSM Motors with dsPIC30F / dsPIC33F/ dsPIC33E DSC Download

E-Scooter Reference Design